A word used to translate several terms that represent various kinds of leadership positions in society. David is called the “ruler over all Israel” (1Sam 25:30; NRSV: “prince”), and Solomon is termed the “ruler over Israel and over Judah” (1Kgs 1:35). But the word may also designate the leader of any segment of the social structure, whether family, clan, or tribal unit (Exod 18:25; Judg 11:8). Rulers were apparently the chief overseers of livestock (Gen 47:6), David’s public works projects (1Chr 29:6), Persian satrapies (“officials of the provinces,” Esth 8:9), and cities under Hezekiah (2Chr 29:20). In the NT the leader or president of a synagogue is called the “ruler of the synagogue” (NRSV: “leader”; Matt 9:18; Mark 5:22-43; Luke 13:10-17). We also read of “rulers of the city” (NRSV: “authorities”), where the reference is to the local Greek magistrates, rather than to the Roman authorities (Acts 16:19; Acts 17:6).

1Sam 25:30

30When the Lord has done to my lord according to all the good that he has spoken concerning you, and has appointed you prince over Israel,

1Kgs 1:35

35You shall go up following him. Let him enter and sit on my throne; he shall be king in my place; for I have appointed him to be ruler over Israel and over Jud ... View more

Exod 18:25

25Moses chose able men from all Israel and appointed them as heads over the people, as officers over thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens.

Judg 11:8

8The elders of Gilead said to Jephthah, “Nevertheless, we have now turned back to you, so that you may go with us and fight with the Ammonites, and become head ... View more

Gen 47:6

6The land of Egypt is before you; settle your father and your brothers in the best part of the land; let them live in the land of Goshen; and if you know that t ... View more

1Chr 29:6

6Then the leaders of ancestral houses made their freewill offerings, as did also the leaders of the tribes, the commanders of the thousands and of the hundreds, ... View more

Esth 8:9

9The king's secretaries were summoned at that time, in the third month, which is the month of Sivan, on the twenty-third day; and an edict was written, accordin ... View more

2Chr 29:20

Temple Worship Restored
20Then King Hezekiah rose early, assembled the officials of the city, and went up to the house of the Lord.

Matt 9:18

A Girl Restored to Life and a Woman Healed
18While he was saying these things to them, suddenly a leader of the synagogue came in and knelt before him, saying, ... View more

Mark 5:22-43

22Then one of the leaders of the synagogue named Jairus came and, when he saw him, fell at his feet23and begged him repeatedly, “My little daughter is at the po ... View more

Luke 13:10-17

Jesus Heals a Crippled Woman
10Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath.11And just then there appeared a woman with a spirit that had cripple ... View more

Acts 16:19

19But when her owners saw that their hope of making money was gone, they seized Paul and Silas and dragged them into the marketplace before the authorities.

Acts 17:6

6When they could not find them, they dragged Jason and some believers before the city authorities, shouting, “These people who have been turning the world upsid ... View more

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