A device in which retained heat is used to prepare food. Used mainly for baking bread (Lev 2:4), an oven could also serve as a stove when a large cooking pot was placed upon it. Ovens were fired with any available fuel (Matt 6:30) and were used metaphorically to designate great heat (Ps 21:9; Lam 5:10; Hos 7:6; Hos 7:7).

Lev 2:4

4When you present a grain offering baked in the oven, it shall be of choice flour: unleavened cakes mixed with oil, or unleavened wafers spread with oil.

Matt 6:30

30But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which is alive today and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, will he not much more clothe you—you of little faith?

Ps 21:9

9You will make them like a fiery furnace
when you appear.
The Lord will swallow them up in his wrath,
and fire will consume them.

Lam 5:10

10Our skin is black as an oven
from the scorching heat of famine.

Hos 7:6

6For they are kindled like an oven, their heart burns within them;
all night their anger smolders;
in the morning it blazes like a flaming fire.

Hos 7:7

7All of them are hot as an oven,
and they devour their rulers.
All their kings have fallen;
none of them calls upon me.

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