A sheet or dome used by God to separate cosmic waters from the earth on the second day of creation (Gen 1:6-8), forming the sky. Luminaries were set in the firmament on the fourth day of creation (Gen 1:14-19). Rains were believed to fall through sluices or windows in its surface (Gen 7:11). During the Flood, the upper waters joined with the waters of the primordial deep. In more pacific contexts, the firmament, or its pattern of luminaries, is said to declare the praises of God (Ps 19:1; Ps 150:1). In Ezekiel’s “chariot” vision, a crystal firmament supports the divine throne (Ezek 1:22; Ezek 1:25; Ezek 1:26), just as something resembling a pavement of lapis lazuli is said to lie at the feet of Yahweh’s throne in (Exod 24:10). (Dan 12:3) alludes to the “radiance” of the firmament.

Gen 1:6-8

6And God said, “Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.”7So God made the dome and separated the waters t ... View more

Gen 1:14-19

14And God said, “Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to separate the day from the night; and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years ... View more

Gen 7:11

11In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep burst fort ... View more

Ps 19:1

God's Glory in Creation and the Law
To the leader. A Psalm of David.
1The heavens are telling the glory of God;
and the firmament proclaims his handiwork.

Ps 150:1

Praise for God's Surpassing Greatness
1Praise the Lord!
Praise God in his sanctuary;
praise him in his mighty firmament!

Ezek 1:22

22Over the heads of the living creatures there was something like a dome, shining like crystal, spread out above their heads.

Ezek 1:25

25And there came a voice from above the dome over their heads; when they stopped, they let down their wings.

Ezek 1:26

26And above the dome over their heads there was something like a throne, in appearance like sapphire; and seated above the likeness of a throne was something th ... View more

Exod 24:10

10and they saw the God of Israel. Under his feet there was something like a pavement of sapphire stone, like the very heaven for clearness.

Dan 12:3

3Those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky, and those who lead many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever.

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